() $ (continued on back flap) The Leyden Papyrus The Leyden Papyrus AN EGYPTIAN MAGICAL BOOK EDITED BY F. LI. GRIFFITH AND. F. Ll. Griffith & Herbert Thompson The Leyden Papyrus (An Egyptian Magical Book) Dover Publications Inc. Acrobat 7 Pdf Mb. A page from the Leyden Papyrus X. (facing page 17). A page from the Stockholm Papyrus. (facing page 47). Four plates illustrating ancient Egyptian preparative.

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This translation is copied from: Purification and Hardening of Lead. Melt leyedn, spread on the surface lamellose alum and copperas reduced to a fine powder and mixed, and it will be hardened. Another Purification of Tin. Lead and white tin are also purified with pitch and bitumen.

They are made pure by having alum, salt of Cappadocia and stone of Magnesia thrown on their surfaces. Purification of Tin that is put into the Alloy of Asem. Take tin purified of any other substance, melt it, let it cool; after having well mixed and covered it with oil, melt it again; then having crushed together some oil, some bitumen and some salt, rub it on the metal and melt a third time; after fusion, break apart the tin after having purified it by washing; for it will be like hard silver.

Then if you wish to employ it in the manufacture of silver objects, of such a kind that they cannot be found out and which have the hardness of silver, blend 4 parts of silver and 3 parts of tin and the product will become as a silver object.

Liquid pitch and bitumen, a part of each; throw them on the tinmelt, stir. Dry pitch, 20 drachmas; bitumen, 12 drachmas. Tin, 12 drachmas; mercury, 4 drachmas; earth of Chios, 2 drachmas.

To the melted tin, add the crushed earth, then the mercury, stir with an iron, and put the product in use. The Doubling of Asem. When all are softened, remelt several times and cool by means of the preceding composition. After having augmented metal by these proceedings, clean it with talc.

The tripling is effected by the same procedure, the weights being proportioned in conformity with what has been stated above. It is prepared by the procedures described in the doubling of asem. If you wish to deduct 8 drachmas from the stock, separate them and remelt with 4 drachmas of this same asem; melt these three times and then repeat, then cool and place in reserve in the talc.

Take soft tin in small pieces, purified four times; take 4 parts of it and 3 parts of pure white copper and 1 part of asem. Melt, and after the casting, clean several times and make with it whatever you wish to. It will be asem of the first quality, which will deceive even the artisans. Manufacture of Fusible Asem. Copper of Cyprus, 1 mina; tin in sticks, 1 mina; stone of Magnesia, 16 drachmas; mercury, 8 drachmas, stone of Paros, 20 drachmas. Having melted the copper, throw the tin on it, then the stone of Magnesia in powdered form, then the stone of Paros, and finally the mercury; stir with an iron rod and pour at the desired time.

Take refined copper of Cyprus, throw upon it equal parts, that is, 4 drachmas of salt of Ammon and 4 drachmas of alum; melt and add equal parts of asem. Purify lead carefully with pitch and bitumen, or tin as well; and mix cadmia and litharge in equal parts with the lead, and stir until the alloy is completed and solidifies.

It can be used like natural asem. Take some shreds of metallic leaves, dip in vinegar and white lamellose alum and let them soak during seven days, and then melt with a fourth part of copper, 8 drachmas of earth of Chios, 8 drachmas of asemian earth, 1 drachma of salt of Cappadocia and additional lamellous alum, 1 drachma; mix, melt, and cast the black refuse from the surface.

Manufacture of an Alloy. Copper from Galacia, 8 drachmas; tin in sticks, 12 drachmas; stone of Magnesia, 6 drachmas; mercury, 10 drachmas; asem, 5 drachmas. Manufacture of an Alloy for a Preparation. Copper, 1 mina, melt and throw on it 1 mina of tin in buttons and use thus.


The Coloration of Gold. To color gold to render it fit for use. Misy, salt, and vinegar accruing from the purification of gold; mix it all and throw in the vessel which contains the gold described in the preceding preparation; papyru it remain some time, and then having drawn the gold from the vessel, heat it upon the coals; then again throw it in the vessel which contains the above-mentioned preparation; do this several times until it becomes fit for use.

To augment gold, take cadmia of Thracia, make the mixture with cadmia in crusts, or that from Galacia. Misy and Sinopian red, equal parts to one part of gold. After the gold has been thrown in the furnace and has become of good color throw upon ;apyrus these two ingredients, and removing the gold let it cool, and the gold is doubled. Tin, a tenth of a mina; copper of Cyprus, a sixteenth of a mina; mineral of Magnesia, a thirty-second; mercury, two staters. Melt the copper, throw on it at first, the tin, then the stone of Magnesia; then having papyru these materials, add to them an eighth part of good white asem of papyeus suitable nature.

Then, when the alloying has taken place and at the time of cooling, or of remelting together, add then the mercury last of all. Copper of Cyprus, 4 staters; earth of Samos, 4 staters; lamellose alum, 4 staters; pqpyrus salt, 2 staters; blackened asem, 2 staters, or paprus you desire to make it more beautiful, 4 staters. Having melted the copper, spread upon it the earth of Chios and the lamellose alum crushed together, stir in such a way as to mix them; and having melted this asem, pour.

Having mixed that which has just been melted with some wood of juniper, burn it; before setting aside after having heated it, extinguish the product in lamellose alum and salt taken in equal parts, with some slimy water slightly thick; and if you wish to finish the work immerse again in the above-mentioned; heat so the metal becomes white.

Take care to employ refined copper beforehand, having heated it at the beginning and leyen it to the action of the bellows, until this has rejected its papjrus and become pure; and then use it as has just been stated.

Full text of “The Leyden Papyrus”

Take a Ptolemaic Stater; for they contain in their composition and immerse it; now, the composition of the liquid for the immersion lyeden this: After having immersed and at the moment when the melted metal has been cleaned with this composition, heat, leydeb immerse, the n take out, then heat.

An additional part without a title. Here is the composition of the liquid for immersing: The more numerous the treatments, heatings, and immersions are the more it will improve. Treatment of Hard Asem. How it is expedient proceed to change black and hard asem into white and soft metal. Taking some leaves of the castor-oil plant infuse them a day in paprus then soak it in the water before melting and melt twice and sprinkle with aphronitron.

And throw alum on the casting; leydem into use. It possesses quality for it is beautiful. A remedy for all tarnished asem. Taking straw, barley, and wild rue, infuse in vinegar, pour on it some salt and coals; throw it all in the furnace, blow for a long while and let it cool. For whitening copper, in order to mix it with equal parts of asem, so that no one can recognize it.

Leyden papyrus X

Taking some Cyprian copper, melt it, throwing on it 1 mina of decomposed sandarach, 2 drachmas leyfen sandarach of the color of iron, and 5 drachmas of lamellose alum and melt again. In the second melting, there is thrown on 4 drachmas, or less, of wax of Pontus: For hardening tin, spread separately on its surface lamellose alum and paapyrus if, moreover, you have purified the tin as is necessary and have employed the materials previously named, in such a way that they did not escape by flowing away during the heating, you will have Egyptian asem for the manufacture of objects of jewellery.


For treating gold, otherwise called, purifying gold and rendering it brilliant: Misy, 4 parts; alum, 4 parts; elyden, 4 parts. And having coated the gold with itplace it in an earthenware vessel deposited in a furnace and luted with clay, and heat until the above-named substances have become molten; then withdraw it and scour carefully.

Leyden Papyrus X

How silver is purified and made brilliant. Take a part of silver and an equal weight of lead; place in lapyrus furnace, and keep up the melting until the lead has just been consumed; repeat the operation several times until it becomes brilliant.

For silvering objects of copper: Melt the tin, throw on the crushed earth, then the mercury, and stir with an iron and fashion into globules.

Manufacture of Copper Similar to Gold. Crush some cumin; pour on it some water, dilute, and let it remain in contact during three days. Lleyden the fourth day shake, and if you wish to use it as a coating mix chrysocolla with it; and the gold will appear. Copper of Cyprus, 1 part; tin1 part; stone of Magnesia, 1 part; raw stone of Paros powdered finely. One melts the copper first, then the tin, and the stone of Magnesia; then next, one throws the pulverized stone of Paros upon this; the stirring is done with an iron and the operation is performed in a crucible.

Tin, a measure; copper of Galacia, a half measure. Melt at first the copper, then the tin, stir with an leydeb, and throw on it dry pitch, until it is saturated; immediately pour, remelt, employing lamellose alum in the same manner as pitch, and then pour again.

If you wish to melt the tin first, then the copper in filings after, follow the same proportions in the same manner. Solder for gold is prepared thus: The copper is first melted, then the asem and finally the gold. To recognise the Purity of Tin. After having melted, place some papyrus below it and pour; if the papyrus burns, the tin contains some lead.

Manufacture of Solder for Working Gold. How one goes about making the solder for works of gold: Gold, 2 parts; Copper, oapyrus part; melt and divide up. When you desire a brilliant color melt with a little silver. A Procedure for Writing in Letters of Gold. To write in letters of gold, take some mercury, pour it in a suitable vessel, and add to it some gold in leaves; when the gold appears dissolved in the mercury, agitate sharply; add a little gum, 1 grain for example, and, after letting stand, write in the letters of gold.

Manufacture of Asem that is Black like Obsidian. Asem, 2 parts; lead, 4 parts. Place in an earthen vessel, throw on it a triple weight of unburnt sulphur, and having placed it in the furnace, melt. And having withdrawn it from the furnace, beat, and make what you wish. If you wish to make figured objects in beaten or cast metal, then polish and cut.

It will not rust. And neither touch nor rubbing against the touchstone will detect them, but they can serve especially for the manufacture of a ring of fine appearance. Lryden is the preparation for this.

Gold and lead are ground to a fine powder like flour, 2 parts of lead for 1 of gold, then having mixed, they are incorporated with gum, and one coats the ring with this mixture; then it is heated. One repeats this several times until the object has taken the color. It is difficult to detect the fraudbecause rubbing gives the mark of a gold object, and the heat consumes the lead but not the gold.

Writing in Letters of Gold.