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During , the PMR in children under 5 years was fold higher in rural areas Lei Miao, . More than 98% of pneumonia deaths occurred in 68 countries where .. ; (): – pmid More than 98% of pneumonia deaths occurred in 68 countries where .. ; (): – doi: /S(10) China has seen the largest human migration in history, and the country’s rapid urbanisation has important The growing disease burden in urban areas attributable to nutrition and lifestyle choices is a major ;– in Chinese. [PubMed]. Lin YJ, Lei RY, Luo YX, et al. Mar 27; ( )

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Ulla Kou Griffiths, Editor. Therefore, interventions aimed at reducing pneumonia in infants should be the priority to ending preventable pneumonia deaths in children. China health and family planning statistical digest Data from and representative sample sites were used for analysis during — and —, respectively.

These pathways are complex and defy simple solutions, but need to be rigorously investigated to understand and respond to the health effects of urbanisation in China. As urbanisation continues in China, chronic diseases could become less concentrated in urban areas. Current issues on occupational lsi and control strategies. Efforts to reduce overweight and hypertension and their health sequelae should address the dietary changes and reductions in physical activity that have occurred in both urban and rural populations.

The efficacy of these measures can be seen from the followings: Occupational accidents and injuries are a big concern, especially for migrants who have dangerous work environments, such as those in construction or heavy industry. Leu Data Supplementary Materials Appendix.

Call to action on 199 pneumonia day. PMR among children under 5 in China during — for original sites. To ensure the accuracy of the data reported, a series of quality controls were conducted regularly and independently at all monitoring levels, including at the township- county- municipal- provincial- and national-level.

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This success is partly due to China’s governmental commitment to the expansion of housing and basic infrastructure in urban areas. Research and policy needs Untangling the df web linking urbanisation fe health needs a multidisciplinary approach, and metrics that capture the multidimensional process of rural-to-urban transformation show promise in the assessment of longitudinal changes in urbanicity and the subsequent health effects.

In general, the proportion decreased with time, however, it changed little from to in urban areas. Urban air and water pollution can extend to rural areas through environmental transport, whereas rural environmental pollution can reach urban areas—eg, when fresh produce contaminated by unsafe pesticides reaches dd markets. Urban environmental quality, including air and water pollution, contributes to disease both in urban and in rural areas, and traffic-related accidents pose a major public health threat as the country becomes increasingly motorised.

Much progress has been made towards closing the urban-rural gap in coverage. Yusuf F, Saich T. Received Jan 27; Accepted Jun Please review our privacy policy. A study on the coverage, strategy and cost of hepatitis B vaccination in China, A theory of migration.

Historically, this expansion of urban area has been concentrated along the eastern coast, but in the past decade rapid growth lej occurred in inland provinces, such as Sichuan. Peking Union Medical College Press; Pneumonia is a preventable and treatable disease. He and colleagues’ study 33 in a geographically and socially isolated ethnic minority group in southwest China provided early evidence of the effect of urbanisation on chronic disease; age-related increases in blood pressure were greater in individuals ee had moved to urban areas than in those leo remained in rural villages.

Urbanisation and health in China

These improvements could be relevant to the implementations of some strategies, including Reduce Maternal Mortality and Eliminate Neonates Tetanus and In-facility Delivery Subsidy etc. A provincial analysis of its urbanisation trends shows ed and accelerating rural-to-urban migration across the country and accompanying rapid increases in city size and population.

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To make a stable estimation, the entire study period of — was further divided into six periods,—, —, —, —, —, and — Chang D, Wang S. This decline paralleled but exceeded the decline of The gap between China and developed countries are even greater.

Quarterly quality control was conducted by township hospitals.

China’s air quality standards have been especially difficult to meet because of rapid urbanisation. Road-traffic deaths in China, — Disparities of PMR between rural and urban China still exist. The PMR among children under 5 was calculated as number of deaths from pneumonia dividing by number of live births in the same time period, and adjusted with the 3-year moving average under-report rate [ 11 ].

First, the urban environment itself poses chemical, biological, and physical hazards, which can lead to injury and illness in urban residents. Duringthe PMR in children under 5 years was 4. With the fast economic growth and implementation of governmental policies and strategies in child health, the PMRs among children under 5 have substantially decreased in both urban and rural areas of China from to County MCH institutions check and confirm the cases.

Urbanisation and health in China

The 7th Conference of Chinese Academy of Pediatric. International handbook of population aging. Status of occupational hygiene safety and health hazards and its intervention in migrant workers in China. Searches included appropriate wild cards and truncation and we reviewed the references cited in relevant papers.

Studies on left behind children in 1998. ByChina’s median age is projected to be The proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths declined in the entire nation, both in urban and rural areas, consistent with what Williams et al have observed [ 30 ]. The average health care personnel were 3. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

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