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What charac- teristics do you think the zinc provides to this coated, or galvanized, steel? What precautions should be considered in producing ingeniria product? How will the recycla- bility of the product be affected? The zinc provides corrosion resistance to the iron in two ways. If the iron is completely coated with zinc, askelnad zinc provides a barrier between the iron and the surrounding environment, therefore protecting the underlying iron.

If the zinc coating is scratched to expose the iron, the zinc continues to protect the iron because the zinc corrodes preferentially to the iron see Chapter To be effective, the zinc should bond well to the iron so that it does not permit reactions to occur at the interface with the iron and so that the zinc remains intact during any forming of the galvanized material.

Special equipment may be required to collect and either recycle or dispose of the zinc dust. If we were to use a ceramic that is, traditional window glass canopy, rocks or birds materoales cause it to shatter.

Design a material that would minimize damage or at least keep the canopy from breaking into pieces. We might sandwich a thin sheet of a transparent polymer between two layers of the glass. Some polymers have reasonably good impact properties and may resist failure. The polymers can also be toughened to resist impact by introducing tiny globules of a rubber, or elastomer, into the polymer; these globules improve the energy- absorbing ability of the composite polymer, while being too small to interfere with the optical properties of the material.

Si3N4 is a strong, stiff material. Would you select this material for a spring?

Fundamentos De Ciencia E Ingenieria De Materiales : Donald R. Askeland :

Springs are intended to resist high elastic forces, where only the atomic bonds are stretched when the force is applied. The silicon nitride would satisfy this requirement. However, we would like to ingenleria have good wskeland to impact and at least some ductility in case the spring is overloaded to assure that the spring will not fail catastrophically.

We also would like to be sure that all springs will perform satisfactorily. Ceramic materials such as silicon nitride have virtually no ductility, poor impact properties, and often are difficult to manufacture without introducing at least some small flaws that cause to fail even for relatively low forces.

The silicon nitride is NOT recommended.

How does this work; from what kind of material would the indicator be made; and what are the important properties that the material in the indicator must possess?

Bimetallic materials are produced by bonding two materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion to one another, forming a laminar composite. When the temperature changes, one of the materials will expand or contract more than the other material. This difference in expansion or contraction causes the bimetallic material to change shape; if the original shape is that of a coil, then the device will coil or uncoil, depending on the direction of the temperature change.


Ciencia E Ingenieria De Materiales

In order for the material to perform well, the two materials must have very different coefficients of thermal expansion and should have high enough modulus of elasticity so that no permanent deformation of the material occurs. What types of material properties would you recommend? What materials might be appropriate?

On the other hand, it must be as light as possible to assure that the human can generate enough work to operate the aircraft. Composite materials, particularly those based on a polymer matrix, might comprise the bulk of the aircraft. The polymers have zskeland light weight with densities of less than half that of aluminum and can be strengthened by introducing strong, stiff fibers made of glass, carbon, or other polymers.

Composites having the strength and stiffness http: The satellite will contain delicate electronic equipment that will send and receive radio signals from earth. Design the outer shell within which the electronic equipment is contained. What jngenieria will be required and what kind of materials might be considered? The shell of the microsatellite must satisfy several criteria. One approach might be to use a composite shell of several materials. The outside surface might be a very thin reflective metal coating that would help reflect solar heat.

The main body of the shell might be a light weight fiber-reinforced composite that would provide impact resistance preventing penetration by dust particles but would be transparent to radio signals.

How would you manufacture a hammer head? The head is then heat treated to produce the required mechanical and physical properties.

The striking face and claws of the hammer should be hard—the metal should not dent or deform when driving or removing nails. Yet these portions must also possess some impact resistance, particularly so that chips do not flake off the striking face and cause injuries. Discuss the design requirements of the shuttle hull that led to the use of this combi- nation of materials.

What problems in dw the hull might the designers and manufacturers have faced? The skin must therefore be composed of a material that has an exceptionally low thermal conductivity. The material must be capable of being firmly attached to ingenieri skin of the shuttle and to be easily repaired when damage occurs.

The tiles used on the space shuttle are composed of silica fibers bonded together to produce a very low density ceramic. The thermal conductivity is so low that a person can hold on to one side of asjeland tile while the opposite surface is red hot.

The tiles are attached to inggenieria shuttle http: What properties should the contact material possess? What type of material might you recommend?

Would Al2O3 be a good choice? The material must have a high electrical conductivity to assure that no electrical heating or arcing occurs when the switch is closed. High purity and therefore very soft metals such as copper, aluminum, silver or gold provide the high conductivity.

However the device must also have good wear materiaoes, requiring that the material be hard. Most hard, wear resistant materials have poor electrical conductivity. One solution to this problem is to produce a particulate composite material composed of hard ceramic particles embedded in a continuous matrix of the electrical conductor. For example, silicon carbide particles could be introduced into pure aluminum; the silicon carbide particles provide wear resistance while aluminum provides conductivity.


Other examples of these materials are described in Chapter Al2O3 by itself would not be a good choice—alumina is a ceramic material and is an electrical insulator. However alumina particles dispersed into a copper matrix might provide wear resistance to the composite. Suppose you would like to produce a com- posite material based on aluminum having a density of 1. Design a material that would have this density. Would introducing beads of polyethylene, with a density of 0. In order to produce an aluminum-matrix composite material with a density of 1.

Therefore polyethylene would NOT be a likely possibility. One approach, however, might be to introduce hollow glass beads.

Although ceramic glasses have densities comparable to that of aluminum, a hollow bead will have a very low density. The glass also has a high melting temperature and could be introduced into liquid aluminum for processing as a casting. Describe some possible testing and sorting techniques you might be able to use based on the physical properties of materials. Some typical ingenietia might include: Describe some possible methods that might be used to separate materi- als such as polymers, aluminum alloys, and steels from one another.

Steels can be magnetically separated from the other materials; steel or carbon-containing iron alloys are ferromagnetic and will be attracted by magnets. Density differences could be used—polymers have a density near that of water; the specific gravity of aluminum alloys is around 2.

Electrical conductivity measurements could be used—polymers are insulators, aluminum has a particularly high electrical conductivity.

Explain what benefits each material in the composite may provide to the overall part. Inngenieria problems might the different properties of the two materials cause in producing the part? Aluminum provides good heat transfer due to its high thermal conductivity. It has good ductility and toughness, reasonably good strength, and is easy to cast and process. The silicon carbide, a ceramic, is hard and strong, providing good wear resistance, and also has a high melting temperature.

Askelnd provides good strength to the aluminum, even at elevated temperatures. However there may be problems producing the material—for example, the silicon carbide may not be uniformly distributed in the aluminum matrix if the pistons are produced by casting. We need to assure good bonding between ingenieeia particles and the aluminum—the surface chemistry must therefore be understood.

Differences in expansion and contraction with temperature changes may cause debonding and even cracking in the composite. How many atoms of aluminum are contained in this sample of foil? In a one square inch sample: Based only on the quantum numbers, how many electrons must be present in the 3d energy level? We can let x be the number of electrons in the 3d energy level. Based only on this information, what must be the valence of indium?

We can let x be the number of electrons in the outer sp energy level. For the M shell: How many potential charge carriers are there in an aluminum wire 1 mm in diameter and m in length? Aluminum has 3 valence electrons per atom; the volume of the wire is: Explain why there will be little, if any, ionic bonding component.

The electronegativity of nickel is about 1. The electronegativity of Al is 1.