Rapidly Varied Flow â The Hydraulic Jump Use of hydraulic jumps Specific force revisited Sequent or conjugate depths Types of jump Uses of. View HIDROLIKA SALURAN from SI at Bandung Institute of Technology. HIDROLIKA SALURAN TERBUKA SAADAH MEILUFI, ST MT. Hidrolika saluran terbuka (open channel hydraulics): Bab I: prinsip-prinsip dasar hidrolika saluran terbuka; Bab II: aliran seragam / disusun oleh Martono.
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Hidrolika Saluran Terbuka Download Report.
Published on Nov View 23 Download 0. To dissipate energy after a spillway etc and so prevent scouringTo recover head downstream of an obstructionTo induce mixing and ssluran Force RevisitedOver a short reach of channel, external friction forces can be ignored and if the slope is mild the downstream self-weight body forces can also be ignored. These equations can be used to determine the depths upstream or downstream of a hydraulic jump.
The Froude Number Fr is used to characterize a jump. This oscillates from bed to surface and back, producing waves of irregular period downstreamAvoid in design. ImportantYou have to use Specific Force for hydraulic jumps because the friction loss in the fluid due to the eddying is significantSpecific Energy does not work because it neglects frictionSpecific Force wont work on weirs etc because it does not consider the force on the weir itself. ExampleFlow enters a channel through an undershot sluice gate.
The depth upstream of the gate is 5. Determine where the hydraulic jump forms. Assume no energy losses, and that the channel is wide compared to its depth. Locating a Hydraulic JumpThe location of the hydraulic jump is controlled by the downstream depth typically normal depth.
If y2 yconj, the jump moves upstream and may break against the gate. Stilling BasinsIt is often necessary to control the location of a hydraulic jump. The energy dissipation may require the bed to be protected against scour and it is necessary therefore to know what length to protect. A step in the bed is used to control the position of the jump, ensuring that y3 is artificially raised to the required level to force the jump.
Typical Stilling Basin DesignExpansions and ContractionsVertical ContractionConsidering a vertical contraction, the momentum change between sections 2 and 3 may be written as: P3a can be obtained from hydrostatics.
Then, for a wide channel: This is a step-up; use it to move or fix jump upstreamVertical ExpansionSimilarly: Step-down; use to move jump downstreamHorizontal Expansions and ContractionsSimilar principles apply. Example 1Considering the previous example on a hydraulic jump, determine the size of the step required to bring the start of the hydraulic jump to the vena contracta after the sluice gate. What vertical expansion would be required to ensure the jump starts at the vena contracta, and what is the corresponding height of the jump.
This type of weir is cheaper to construct and more resilient than sharp-crested or V-notch, but V-notch is more sensitive at low flows. Can connect to chart recorder or satellite etc. Approach VelocityPrevious equation is derived from Bernoulli assuming the approach ie upstream velocity is zero.
Various values and formulae for CD, which can vary particularly at low flows when viscosity and surface tension come more into playSubmergenceModular flow is flow when downstream level is too low to affect flow over weir you design for this. Modular limit occurs when downstream level rises above this limit and flow over weir is affectedCan use Villemonte formula if downstream depth y3 can be estimated.
Hidrolika Saluran-terbuka – Ven Te Chow – Google Books
Sluice GatesGiven upstream water levelDetermine required gate opening to pass a particular dischargeEnergy principle applies: Also, the coefficient of discharge Cd can be defined as: ExampleA vertical, underflow sluice gate 3m wide is opened to 0. The depth upstream of the gate is 2. Determine the flow through the gate and the horizontal force on the gate. Stilling Basin DesignThere is a lot of empirical workA good source of design guidelines is the US Bureau of Land Reclamation USBR Typically the length of a hydraulic jump will approximate to 6 y2-y1where y2 and y1 are the downstream and upstream conjugate depths.
Hidrolika saluran-terbuka / Ven Te Chow ; alih bahasa E.V. Nensi Rosalia ; editor Yani Sianipar
Baffle blocks are often used to increase energy dissipation. Chapter 13 on Hydraulic Structures is all worth a read.
CulvertsDefinitionDesign of culvertsAnalysis of existing culvertsDefinition of CulvertsCovered channel or pipe carrying saludan watercourse under an obstruction such as a road. May extend for many kilometres in cities. Typically made from precast sections. Definition SketchDesign Principlesadequate size to pass debris thus avoiding need for a trash screenself-cleansing debris and silt removal avoid slope or cross-section changes which might reduce capacity, catch debris or lead to silting upvisual appearanceease of constructionlow maintenancerisk to children, drunken students etc.
Design and AnalysisFlow that yidrolika culvert must pass depends on upstream catchment.
Headwater depth depends on allowable depth eg to avoid overtopping. Various types of flow can exist as follows. The six possible types of flow as shown. Free flow and surcharged conditions.
Type varies with flow so multiple analysis required. ExampleAn existing box culvert is 1. There is a trash screen at the inlet with 12 20mm diameter bars in a 1. The downstream channel is rectangular, 3. The maximum allowable headwater depth is 2. Determine the capacity of the culvert.
ReferenceNone for this part. Hidrolika Saluran Terbuka Documents. Pratikum Hidrolika Saluran Terbuka Documents.
Aliran Dalam Saluran Terbuka – Gunadarma menganggap bahwa jumlah debit aliran sama dari masing Kondisi aliran pada culvert Documents. Hidrolika Terapan Sal Terbuka Documents. Aliran melalui saluram terbuka Documents.