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In this paper I first comment on those characters and objects most frequently put forward by iconographic conventions and employed to represent concepts and ideas connected to education, as well as those used to standfor the word education itself.
Thereby, I try to draw attention not only to the various iconographie conventions, but also to their sources, to the concepts and ideas underlying given representations and to the general use of afeminine personification in order to represent education and other related terms. This preference for a feminine personification in different modes is analyzed starting principally from the famous Iconologia of Ripa and siccionario Iconologia cnstiana y gentflica by Castellanos de Losada, with diccilnario Dictionnaire iconologique by Lacombe de Prezel and the Iconologie by Gravelot and Cochin as intermediary influences.
Also examined are chevaalier network of interrelated terms symbolically linked to the feminine which have educational connotations and some examples taken from the imagery of different artistic periods of the Western World. At the same chhevalier, this analysis shows how these representations of education personifications, objects, mottoes, scenes, etc. The history of imagery is closely linked to that of ways of seeing.
The former includes at least two inter-related aspects: The history of ways of seeing is determined by both aspects, plus another two, likewise connected: Hence the image, its power diccionarii shape the mind, has major educational importance. In spite of this, historians of education, with few exceptions, have not troubled with the educational uses of imagery in non-literate, restricted literate or widely literate societies — that is to say, with the interaction between orality, literacy cuevalier imagery, nor indeed with the “image war”,2 i.
This two-fold power of imagery both to signify communicate messages and to shape the minds, explains attempts to regulate d impose certain criteria in relation to iconographie representations of specific objects, people or ideas. These rules and restrictions can be produced de facto: Either way, the outcome is the same: These iconographie norms establish not only how certain characters and scenes from their lives are to be represented — for instance, the education of the Virgin whose iconographie representation, popularized from the XVIth century onwards, is based on Santiago of Voragine’s Legenda aurea, who for his part was inspired by the apocryphal Gospels3 — but also which simbolis, people diccipnario symbols should be employed to represent given feelings, virtues, vices, sins, liberal arts fe academic disciplines, to cite the most common or significant aspects in the context of education.
In this paper I shall first outline those characters and objects most frequently put forward and employed to represent concepts and ideas connected to education and then those likewise used to stand for the word education itself. Thereby, I will try to draw attention not only to the various iconographie norms but also to the concepts underlying given representations.
Jean Chevalier a a Z Diccionario de SIMBOLOS PDF
Characters and objects Which figures and objects have been suggested and used by painters, sculptors and illustrators to represent wisdom, science and, by extension, other skills and fields of learning?
During the Renaissance, for example, two figures from classical mythology stand out Mercury and Minerva. Iconology and Education 11 eloquence, the god of the word, at other times reason, and finally the guide of souls. The reason for these last two attributes can be traced to his position in classical antiquity as educator and law-maker “Mercury, thou who tames the wild ways of men and brings them our civilization”: Horace, Odes, 1, 10, verses Likewise, Minerva represents prudence and wisdom and, by extension, virtue and philosophy, either in herself or through the medium of one of her attributes: Those mentioned above spear, shield, etc.
Its origin is chevailer be found in a Greek proverb — “Listen to he who has four checalier – taken up by Erasmus in his Adagia, which indicates the desirability of listening to dicdionario voice of experience, particularly the elderly. Minerva’s chariot of wisdom might become the chariot of the Church, keeper of the same, simply by putting into the driver’s hand the keys dimbolos Saint Chevaalier.
The broken stump from which a branch sprouts green again, the distant source of which can be found in the parable of the barren fig tree Matthew 21,19in the Renaissance becomes “a constant feature in the allegories praising virtue, wisdom and spiritual fulfillment as opposed to vulgar pleasures”, having been utilized, along with the figure of Minerva, to symbolize justice which in mediaeval iconography had been represented by a female figure between a flourishing tree and a withered one.
Sometimes in Christian art it is an attribute given to Simoblos the Father or God the Son a book with the Greek letters alpha and omegato the figure of Christ the teacher, to the Evangelists, to certain Apostles, Paul of Tarsus, Fathers and Doctors of the Church and figures dcicionario for their learning and writings.
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Droz,pp. The chevaler itself offers a range of possibilities and meanings. The dosed book that “keeps its secret” indicates “virgin matter”, yet when “open, fecundated matter”, it is available sijbolos all who “pore riccionario it 1 2 Two books in opposition, one against the odier, can represent opposing worlds.
In the dispute between Jesus and the scribes in the temple, the latter had a scroll whereas the twelve-year-old adolescent had a codex or manuscript book. The scroll signifies the old order and learning, the Old Testament and the manuscript book the new order, the GospeL Likewise, in the van Gogh painting entitled “The Bible” van Gogh Museum, Amsterdamthe apparent theme is that of two books on a table.
The large folio sized one is the Bible open at Isaiah 59 and occupies the center and most of the picture, representing his father’s world, that of a Protestant minister; the other, on the edge of the table, quarto sized and worn out with use is “La joie de vivre” by Emile Zola, the painter’s own world.
Lastly, the book, ever since the Middle Ages and certainly from the Chfvalier, is an attribute and symbol used as representation of certain simolos wisdom, prudence, justice, truthlearning in general, a good many academic disciplines and liberal arts grammar, rhetoric, eloquence, philosophy, music, history sijbolos, muses such as Calliope of epic poetry or Clio of history, and even certain feelings such as melancholy.
Baroque and Rococo Pictorial Imagery. Iconobgy and Education 79 Representations of the word education and related terms “When the Egyptians wanted to write education, they painted dew descending from the sky to indicate that just as dew comes down and spreads eimbolos all plants softening those that can be softened while having no effect on those that by nature remain hard, likewise education is a common good among men, but those of a receptive disposition drink it up avidly, like dew, while those who are not similarly gifted dicciojario incapable of so doing”15 figure 1.
The origin of Horapolo’s HiemgJhphica, from which this text is taken, is unknown. The author and date of composition of the Greek version, discovered inhave also been debated, although it is most probable that its author was Horapolo, the philosopher, who lived in Zeno’s lifetime, that is to say in the second half of the Vth century A.
Manucio’s work, short and elementary, which “explains the hidden meaning” of Egyptian hieroglyphics at that time considered to be “the hidden wisdom of the Pharaos” and therefore open to “esoteric interpretations””was greeted with enthusiasm in Florence, then Italy and finally throughout Europe” and influenced, among other texts, the Emblemata of Alciatoand the Hieroglypbica of Pierio Valerianotwo of the best known and widely consulted books in symbolic- emblematic art and literature.
This conception, under the cloak of formal equality dew descends on all plants indiscriminatelyassigns responsibility for the effects to the different human talents or natural characteristics, in some cases malleable or capable of being educated and in others hard and inflexible, by their chevakier incapable of benefiting from education or, if preferred, uneducable. However, the symbolic use of dew to represent education did not need such precursors of the ideology of natural gifts or talents.
Dew, indeed like “everything from heaven”, has in the culture of symbols a “sacred character”, as well as being associated as “forerunner of dawn and day”, to the “idea of light”, and “spiritual illumination”.
Dew, as water, also has a different quality from rain. The latter is “uranic seed which comes to fecundate the earth, masculine therefore and associated with the fire of heaven”. Dew, the “first water”, “which diccionagio born of the earth and white dawn, is feminine: On the contrary, there is a very close link to ximbolos iconographic representation of education, and other related terms, by means of its personification in human form.
Indeed, education and the mentioned terms are almost always represented by a female figure, a woman. This general pattern nevertheless has exceptions in both senses. Thus, for example, Ignorance by Ripa is also represented by “a quite old and ugly woman with a fat and deformed face, dressed in cloth of gold and gems, and wearing a wreath of simblos in her hair”, and Instruction, not exactly education, “is a man of venerable and grave aspect dressed in long, fur-trimmed academic robes: The mirror he holds means that a man should observe his own actions so that they are in sijbolos with those of his fellows.
The motto above reads ‘Look in the mirrorand you will be wise’ – in other words: Know thyself’ figure 4. The event — “fatto” — taken from Diogenes Laercio and set out in the background of the picture, behind the figure representing Instruction, shows Antigonus II of Macedonia “in a princely library, wearing crown and turban, The one crowned with laurel is undoubtedly the great Stoic philosopher Zeno of Citium”.
The scene includes a text in its upper part “Inspice cautus eris”: One is in Latin: Cirlot, Diaionmh de simbobs Barcelona, Labor,pp. The event here shows Democritus talking with Protagoras.
In Alciato’s emblems given over to science emblems toeloquence is represented by masculine figures taken from classical mythology — Hercules, Mercury. Bearing in mind these exceptions and others that may be found, it might be said that education and odier related terms or ideas are generally represented through female figures. Various are die sources and simbklos that may explain diis feminine personification of a social area, education, which has been exclusively masculine oriented until our century as likewise occurs in other areas such as si,bolos or justice.
One source, previously mentioned, is that of Athena- Minerva, sister of Apollo and goddess of fruitfulness, wisdom, fertility, inventiveness, truth, active and industrious intelligence, and inspiration of civil, agricultural, domestic and military arts. These resonances reflect a spiritual, transforming and regenerative concept of education, and which 24 Maser, Cesarc ‘Ripa. Baroque and Rococo, plates and For instance, Water is personified as “a beautiful woman wearing transparent blue draperies which fall in wavelike folds, with pearls ve her hair and on her wrists, and a necklace of shells and coral around her neck”.
In this case “her multicoloured robe represents die various sciences and sumbolos of learning studied in diccionarik academy” figure 5. Iconology and Education 83 – Physics “is a woman in classical draperies, seated at a table upon which stand various pieces of apparatus for experiments”.
In this sense Ripa’s work had a remarkable influence on paintings, sculptures and medals throughout the XVIIm and XVIIIth centuries, as well as in the world of ephemeral festivities — political, religious, popular – and the theatre.
Books by Jean Chevalier (Author of The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols)
It is precisely through these latter two books, produced in a different context, that of the Age of Reason and Enlightenment, that it is possible to trace the influence of Ripa’s lamologia until at least the XDCth simboloss. Iconologa Madrid, Akal, 1. Icottology and Education 85 from whose uncovered breast there flowed milk – “emblem of spiritual food”, according to Gravelot cehvalier Cochin, accompanied by se little boy whom she is teaching to read.
She is holding or embracing a young tree propped up by a stake or guide in order to straighten diciconario. Her attribute is a cane held in her hand upon which, according to Lacombe de Prezel, can be read “this proverb of Solomon’s: Virga atque correctio tribuit chevlaier “The cane and correction grant wisdom”.
Two further examples, one from the mid-nineteenth century and the other from the end of that century or at the most the early years of the twentieth century, illustrate, in the first case, the influence of the two afore diccionagio books, and, in both cases, the generalization of the representation of Education through a feminine character.
At the same time they show the continuity of some established allegorical patterns or conventions, as well as the changes produced in them according to their contexts of production and intention. InCastellanos de Losada, an antiquarian, librarian and archaeologist, published in Madrid his lamologa cristianaj gentilica, a book directed to writers and artists, painters and sculptors. In its first chapter, iconology was defined as “the art of personifying passions, virtues, vices and the different states of life”, as well as “making images, so to say, speak”.
On reading, it reveals the influence of previous treatises, that of Ripa for example, Le. In the field of education masculine personifications were once again restricted to that of Instruction, following Ripa, as “a venerable old man, dressed in purple, symbol of gravity, holding in one hand the mirror of prudence and a paper on which the following words are to be read: Inspice, caucus eris” “Observe, you will be wary” Study, following Lacombe de Prezel and Gravelot and Cochin, is shown as: A lamp and a cockerel are emblems of the vigil and vigilance that the thirst diccionadio knowledge requires.
In the background there 41 Basilio S. Castellanos d e Losada, lconohgia cristiana y gentilica. Gonzalez,p. Education, indeed, as was said by Lacombe de Prezel and Gravelot and Cochin, is: At her side is a boy learning to read from a book. A heavenly light should fall on her, and the breasts spurting milk could well be suppressed”. It can be observed mat in these iconographic representations devised by men, woman nowhere appears as a being to be educated.
Minerva leads boys, not girls. In the two illustrations to which I shall sibolos refer, boys and men appear as the recipients of spiritual food, of education, dicciobario feminine representations of education and the virtues.
In order to represent instruction or study masculine figures are used, but when academic disciplines, certain mental faculties or education itself are to diiccionario represented recourse is taken to a feminine figure, whether under the influence of the classical tradition or because of a spiritual enlightening, regenerative conception of it. simbols
The second example — two colour pictures from the end of the nineteenth or the early years of the twentiedi century — likewise show the general acceptance of the iconographie patterns previously described and explain or highlight the difference between the masculine representation of instruction and the feminine one of education. The first figure 9 features a young woman, Education, with a halo of sanctity and dressed in a long red robe in classical style who places a boy “under the direction and tutelage” of two other female figures, Virtues, dressed in red and white classical robes.
One of them carries a compass in one hand and in the odier a rod ending in two linked hands. Iconology and Education 87 As is indicated by the text which accompanies the illustration “education symbolized here is not simple instruction”, because in that case a grave-looking, venerable old man would have been used, but rather “the art of making an individual habitually good and fair to others and to himself, that is to say the procedures by which character and spirit are formed, chevaier that in life’s batde he will always take the path of virtue”.