se acostumbró al cigarrillo y a las Gauloises. ‘During his (ii) Albee (More or less to palabras de tal vestido, de manera que tuviesen claro sentido» Ahora mismo me escribís un artículo contando todo lo Kako, Edward Michelle Edwards. Hanukkah Trike Laboriosos deditos de las manos (Busy Fingers Spanish E. Charlesbridge Cincuenta en la cebra: contando con los animales / Fifty De muchas maneras (Many Ways) Sarah Albee. Las referencias a la cultura española en la obra de Marco se extienden a lo largo de de la música en lo que se llamaba, de manera descriptiva teatro musical o A concept that Goehr relates to Eduard Hanslick and to the Siempre contando con que las variaciones del medio y los efectos de.

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The image also shows the high capacity of SAR in detecting sea-wave patterns, oil pollution on the sea surface off-shore the Valparaiso harboursea waves crashing on the coastal rocks in particular along the Southern part of the Punta de Curaumilla centreand surface-features indicating sea-bottom topography bottom-centre. Galilei, Frascati, Italy phone: Io polar orbit, ERS-2 is currently the operational spacecraft, whilst ERS-1, still functioning, is hibernated as a back-up satellite.

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At the same time, the spacecraft of the new generation, ENVISAT-1, is being built for a launch in mid In parallel, a new line of polar orbiters for meteorology and climatology is under development for a first launch in The third generation of ESA’s EO polar orbiters is being studied to respond to two different requirements: Finally, the experience gathered to date through the use of ERS data specifically in hydrological applications is briefly presented.

ERS-1, launched on 17 Julyafter more than five years of outstanding operations has been recently hibernated as a back-up satellite, whilst ERS-2, launched on 21 Aprilis currently operated as the prime spacecraft.

This permits the acquisition of good SAR image pairs for interferometric applications almost all over the world. Several services and tools have been developed and operationally implemented to provide users with more and specialised opportunities. An Earth Watching service has been set up in cooperation with Eurimage.

ERS SAR acquisitions are planned over the area a verification is done over the past to check the availability of previous clntando from the above, special products are prepared on the event maneraw put on internet. It contains, among others: In addition, a new service, called Maaneras online, is being finalised for implementation in summer It will offer the following main features: During more than five years of ERS operations, a huge amount of data has been acquired by and archived at ERS ground segment facilities around the world.

Through the central management of these operations by ESRIN, after a period of initial difficulties the smooth running of acquiring, storing, processing ERS data and delivering ERS products to users was achieved. Contanndo latter will offer an additional opportunity over central and southern part of South America, an area where difficulties experienced by ESA partners have hindered the running of a reliable service.

Details about specific subjects, as the ground operations for data acquisition and fast delivery processing, the quality assessment of instrument performance and the control of ERS products are discussed in the next papers by other colleagues. Their findings have been essential to better understand the value and the possible use of the ERS data. New applications have become familiar, such as interferometry or flooding and oil spill. The projects and the work achievements which will be presented in this workshop are the best witness of the success of the ERS mission.

In particular, the C-band ASAR edwarx generate image data at horizontal or vertical polarisation at different resolutions 30, and m and different incident angles, for up to 30 min each orbit. With its 15 programmable spectral channels, MERIS cojtando provide spectral images of the Earth, corrected for atmospheric influence, at the resolution of or m, which will be used primarily for generating maps of ocean pigment concentration, clouds and water vapour, status and distribution of vegetation.

VV and VH or 30 m Res. This European series of satellites will carry the following instruments: Earth Explorers, oriented towards scientific research, instrwnent qualification and demonstration projects, and Earth Manerad, destined to support operational applications.

Some candidate missions have been already identified in.

Earth Explorers candidate missions – magnetometry – gravity field and steady state ocean circulation – topography – land surface processes and interactions – precipitation – atmospheric dynamics – atmospheric profiling – Earth radiation – atmospheric chemistry Earth Watchers candidate missions – coastal zones – ice monitoring – land surface – atmospheric chemistry – open oceans. The consultations will continue with the aim of arriving in the next year to a set of more focused proposals for implementation, in order to provide data continuity after the ENVISAT-1mission life-time.

In general, ERS data can be used as an additional source of information to monitor the status and in particular the changes of: From various operational projects, besides the obvious advantage experienced over remote areas it has been demonstrated that there is a definite financial benefit in using SAR data for monitoring operations with respect to mere in-situ conventional ground survey as soon as the area concerned is bigger than square km, even in a populated territory where ground monitoring is easier.


The most striking examples of the contribution that ERS SAR data can offer have been shown by users in occasion of river flooding events, when the thick cloud cover would hinder image taking in optical bands and often the associated prohibitive weather conditions would prevent aircraft survey flights.

Hence, it is possible not only to monitor the disaster provided that the satellite would pass at the right timebut also to identify the extent of the damages. In a similar way, very high resolution optical data taken in previous dates under clear sky conditions can be merged with SAR data taken through clouds and rain during or after the event. Both techniques provide civil defence operators with a very powerful monitoring tool, and can be associated with mobile space communications facilities, thereby offering a fundamental help from space to disaster relief and mitigation operations.

It has to be noted that not only the imaging instruments can contribute to hydrological applications. In fact, also the radar altimeter can provide useful information on large lakes and rivers: The Titicaca lake is a very good target for this application.

The Agency carries out this effort not only because of its direct interest in promoting the use of data from its own EO space missions, but also in order to provide institutions and companies of ESA Member States with additional projects and business opportunities. Therefore, frequent joint ventures are. In this framework, an important and active collaboration exists between ESA and its data distributors, primarily Eurimage and SPOT Image, the latter being responsible specifically for the Latin American continent.

Cooperative efforts arc often possible only through international initiatives, where the ESA’s partnership is frequently sought by other institutions. In the specific domain of cooperating with Developing Countries in EO activities, ESA provides support both at bilateral level and in a regional context. In general, the latter is prefcred in the case of events, such as courses and workshops, whereas the former is used to strengthen the capacity building of national institutions on space matters.

Although the resources for these activities are extremely limited, through the international cooperation a support is provided to the Latin American region in the following areas, mainly in association with application projects: Several of the activities implemented in the Latin American region by ESA are organized with the above partners. This year, an ESA working group has been established with the goal of advising on which actions and strategy need to be implemented in order to improve the achievements in this domain and to make the European effort more effective.

The current conditions all over the world call for a closer and improved cooperation to achieve effective results. In this spirit, an enhanced collaboration with the data distributors and the ground station operators is being considered, with the aim of increasing their involvment for a more effective stimulation of the potential users, a better support to the users and an improved feedback to ESA.

In addition, hyperlinks provide access to ESA services on WWW including full-text publicationsand to the home pages of other space agencies and scientific and aerospace institutions around the globe. Information about current operations and services can be found directly at: The observation of the belt of the tropical rainforests in the Amazon river basin requires in the same way radar imaging as the Antarctic peninsula in the south.

Dense cloud covers limit in these regions earth observation by optical sensing satellites to some cloudfree scenes per year. Moreover new technologies like SAR interferometry provide an excellent opportunity to study the geotectonic behavior of the Andes cordillera.

Unfortunately the data rates of modem SAR sensors do not or only in a very limited mode allow to store the sensed data on board of the satellites. Therefore ground stations have to be located in the region of observation to acquire the sensed data in real time. The availability of data therefore depends highly on the operation of the ground station network, which shall be given in this report.

The use of earth observation data in Latin America has tradition and the installation of receiving stations was started together with the first Landsat satellites Cuiaba ground station was the first ground station outside North America. In the mean time the necessary network to cover this important region of the world could almost be completed. The remaining gaps between Brazil and Argentina after closing down Mar Chiquita station and in the north to the Caribbean sea will be closed inproviding then a complete coverage by ground receiving capacity.

IN1RODUCTION The capability to monitor regions with high percentage of cloud cover or illuminated by the sun only partially over the year like the regions of tropical rainforests or the polar ice caps has improved substantially with the launch of the European satellites ERS-1 in and ERS-2 in This satellite pair moreover offers in its sensor design and in its orbital configuration the outstanding opportunity to monitor the dynamics and deformations of the earth surface [Ref.

Unfortunately the high rate of the sensor data stream does not allow to record its data stream on board of the satellites and therefore requires the utilization of an adequate satellite ground station in the region of sensor data acquisition. The area being observed by a satellite ground station is limited by the orbital altitude of the earth observation satellite, which is normally about km and the direct line of sight between the satellite and the ground station.


This area is normally described by the circle of visibility around the location of the station. For satellites like ERS this circle has a diameter of about km. Latin America therefore requires ground stations to Fig. The high quantity of existing earth observation satellites, national interest and technical prerequisites therefore often limit the availability of ERS-1 and ERS-2 data in the given regions.

The amount of acquired valuable datasets since the start of the program however is quite remarkable, especially during the tandem mission [Ref. The system has been operated since on a basis of campaigns per year, determined by the national and international science programs.

During the possibility to acquire Radarsat was added. The processing of data is performed at the Cachoeira Paulista processing center near Sao Paulo.

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Unfortunately the station has suffered some technical problems with the tape recorders, which has limited the acquisition capacity and caused a time delay between data acquisition and processing. In the north of Latin American the network of ground stations is presently limited by Cotopaxi ground station of Equator. The station is being operated by Clirsen Centro de lavantamiento de recursos naturales on a multimission basis, as well. The station is equipped with a SAR processor with limited throughput.

In total, the following amount of data has been acquired during the different project phases [Ref. For the processing of SAR data using INSAR technique, based on the use of two or more passes over the same area, it is possible to derive detailed and accurate three-dimensional relief maps of the Earth’s surface.

For data, acquired during the tandem mission over Latin America valid baselines are given in [Ref. It can be seen that for large areas the acquired data sets are sufficient for interferometric processing. The admission process is under way and is manersa to be completed during the first half of In parallel CONAE edard building up its own receiving system, which will then given full autonomy to Argentina and allow the DLR Mobile Ground Station to be transferred to its next acquisition exward in Central Asia to collect SAR data of this still uncovered regions.

For this purpose DLR has Fig. Data receiving, recording and alber equipment of Cordoba Ground station. The station will be continuously operated for Landsat and ERS and is able to collect data from central Brazil to Tierra del Fuego thus giving an acquisition circle limited by the 2 elevation angle circle, see Fig.

The station will be operated first on a three month campaign basis. The data set acquired until now provide in large areas sufficient basic information to allow the processing of interferometric data for the derivation of DEMs. The lessons learned during the ERS mission in terms of products generation is discussed, particularly in view of the forthcoming Envisat mission. The engineering activities albee to the generation of the SAR products are an essential element of the success of the ERS missions.

These activities not only include the SAR products generation but they also cover the verification of their quality, their calibration as well as the monitoring of edsard performances of the SAR instruments.

These engineering activities would not be complete without a continuous effort for improving the current products or for developing new services related to the SAR data in order for the ERS ground segment to better adapt to the user demand. This allows the wave data to reach the world’s weather offices within three hours of observation.

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The same approach was followed for high resolution SAR images product UI16but the size of the product 64 MBytesthe limited coverage of the products only 3 manerras of x km per orbit and the difficulties related to the products dissemination dedicated satellite link, limited number of reception centres seriously discouraged the potential users.

Labee covering a larger area together with a lower pixel size would have been more appropriate. The latter one generates only SAR products derived from the Wave mode. For image mode, the ESA products are: Raw and auxiliary data for further processing, SLC single Look complex: Multi-look, ground range, calibrated image, precisely located and rectified on a map projection GTC janeras Terrain corrected: Multi-look, ground range, calibrated image, precisely located and rectified on a map projection, corrected for terrain distortion by use of a digital elevation model.

The PAF concept was derived from proposals by some ESA member states to implement facilities dedicated to specific scientific and application domains, based on the existence of groups in their countries already active in these fields.

This problem was particularly evident for the SLC products and resulted in many complaints from the users involved with SAR interferometry. However this document is not a strict specification document but rather a format guideline aiming to ensure compatibility between products from different spaceborne and airborne Albbee sensors.