Efecto del liofilizado y del proceso de producción en la composición química y el perfil de ácidos grasos de la pulpa de aguacate . Avocado fruits of the variety ” Hass” from an irrigation orchard and a rainfed orchard, both 30 years old. El aguacate (Persea americana Mill) es la quinta fruta tropical más importante en el mundo, medida . Análisis del contenido de gramos de aguacate Hass. MODELO FENOLÓGICO PARA EL AGUACATE ‘HASS’ EN EL ESTADO DE Una alternativa al control químico es el uso de enemigos naturales o control Con esta información, se calculó la composición en fresco por tejido y las curvas .

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Effect of freeze-drying and production process on the chemical composition and fatty acids profile nass avocado pulp. Dirigir la correspondencia a: Enrique Arreola Silva Col. Telephone 52 Ext Freeze-drying technology is the best dehydration process to preserve shelf-life and allowing avocado to maintain its sensorial and nutritional characteristics. The aim of this work agjacate to determine if the freeze-drying and production condition have an effect on the nutritional quality of the avocado pulp grown in rain-fed and irrigation orchards.

Four treatments were applied: Results showed that the fruit is made up of The pulp is made up of The freeze-drying decreased the linoleic acid by 1. We conclude that freeze-dried avocado pulp shows slight changes in their nutritional quality. Se aplicaron 4 tratamientos: Se concluye que la pulpa del aguacate liofilizada presenta ligeros cambios en su calidad nutrimental.

The avocado Persea Americana is native to America. Avocado farming thrives in different ecological conditions yass the world.

Inavocado exports reached aguacxte, dollars 3. Currently, the global economic environment favors the exchange of food products among countries, with a tendency towards natural food production with the least amount of chemical products for its production and preservation. This is why the need to present new alternatives of food processing emerges, which include insofar as possible, only physical processes for its preservation 6.

Water removal is a form of preserving food that has been used for hundreds of years 7, 8. The combined methods of dehydration are preservation techniques that can be considered for the minimum processing of food 8. These methods focus on the use of technologies that leads towards to preserving food where the smell and taste characteristics of the original products are maintained The freeze-drying technology is a dehydration process at a sufficiently low temperature, modifying the pressure, and is emerging as an alternative of food preservation, as it is a process based on the separation of water by sublimation 8, 11, 9.

It is a quikica method that allows obtaining products with the same typical characteristics of the freeze-drying material, which has been used in a great range of heat-sensitive products that require high quality standards 9. The freeze-drying product does not change form, is easily rehydratable 8, 11, 12 and can prevent the growth of microorganisms 6, 8, Freeze-drying is undoubtedly the best option for dehydrating avocado 13, 9.

It is presented as a value-added alternative of the fruit 14displaying other benefits that the fresh fruit does not, such as longer shelf life, lower weight to transport to other markets with greater distance from the production point 7, 13 ; although the high costs of freeze-drying restrict its application on a large scale in the food industry 9.

In foods such as cocoa Theobroma cacao L. Quimcia is known within the current literature about the composition of freeze-drying avocado pulp, but some effects derived from this drying technology had been mentioned on the composition of other fruits.

In ginger Alpinia zerumbet, Etlingera elatior, Curcuma longa and Kaempferia galangal and some flowers from qhimica genus Cytisus, the low processing temperatures during freeze-drying exerts a protecting effect on termolabile compounds like phenolics, sugars, tocopherols, chlorophylls and lycopene as well as the antioxidant activity 19, In whole-lemon Citrus limon, L.

In kiwifruit non browning was reported in freeze-drying pulp Also, volatile constituents present in essential oils as terpenes in bakhtiari savoy Satureja bachtiarica Bunge 23 and basil Ocimun basilicum 24 are better retained, and no significant differences occurred among several constituents in the extracted essential oils as compared with a fresh sample.

This susceptibility is associated with the storage sguacate the sample and not by the drying process per se, as it has been acknowledged that freeze-drying of samples is the safest drying method to preserve the fatty profile in microencapsulated walnut oil In other drying methods, like dried by atomization, the peroxide index increases at the beginning of the storage, the lipids decreases during the storage, both in refrigeration and at room temperature.


This decrease could be due to the oxidation of the product suffering the heat composickon fatty acids used There are compozicion on freeze-drying avocado, but none were found that considered the freeze-drying effect on the nutritional quality of the avocado pulp, specifically of the fatty acids, as the fat represents the main component after the fruit’s moisture. Thus the aim of this research was has determine if comopsicion freeze-drying and production condition have an hhass on the fatty acids profile and the nutritional quality of the avocado pulp in rainfed and irrigation orchards.

Avocado fruits of the variety “Hass” from an irrigation orchard and a rainfed orchard, both 30 years old, located in the South of Jalisco, Mexico were collected. Ten trees in each orchard were randomly selected, from which three samples of 3 kg 9 kg in total or fruits physiological maturity. Three replicates of 1 kg were placed in each orchard, which were peeled and sliced.

The treatments established were: Avocado orchards grown under rainfed conditions RC had a total rainfall of This study used aghacate 2×2 factorial design with three replicates; one factor was the production system irrigation or rainfed and the other one was freeze-drying freeze-drying and non-freeze-drying pulp. Therefore four treatments were analyzed, the variables assessed were: The weight in pulp mesocarpseed and skin exocarp in each of the fruits collected was determined.

Once the pulp was freeze-drying, it was placed in vacuum plastic bags. After that, chemical hsas analyses and fatty acids profile were carried out. Chemical composition of fresh and freeze-dryingavocado pulp Protein. Joseph, MI,N 2 freed composicioon pyrolysis and subsequent combustions, is wept by CO 2carrier into nitrometer. CO 2 is absorbed in KOH and volume residual N 2 is measured and converted to equivalent protein by numerical factor. The determination of moisture was a o C by method The crude fiber was obtained through the method of Crude fiber is loss on ignition of dried residue remaining after digestion of sample with 1.

Ash 2 h at o C, cooled in desiccator and weighted.

La palta: una fruta llena de beneficios y favorita en el mundo

Petroleum ether was composicionn to extract the free lipids in Soxhlet apparatus; for acids combined, dilute hydrochloric acid was used to dissolve the lipid-bound proteins. The total fat The Glycerides and phospoholipids were saponified, and y liberated in presence of BF 3 catalyst for further analysis by GC.

The chromatographic conditions were as follows: The fatty acids were determined through the official method All of the determinations were performed in triplicate.

domposicion The avocado fruit of the “Hass” variety from the South of Jalisco is made aghacate of Aguacats composition and fatty acids profile. With the performance of a joint analysis of the two factors evaluated, freeze-drying FD and production conditions irrigation or rainfedthe results showed significant statistical differences in the chemical composition of the avocado pulp specifically in the content of ashes in the treatments evaluated. On the other hand, in the variable crude fiber, protein and total fat, no significant differences were detected table 1.

The freeze-drying pulp treatment in rainfed conditions presented the largest amount of ashes. Means with the same letter in each column do not mean differences with p.

Based on the joint statistical analysis of the two factors evaluated, no significant differences were detected for the variables palmitic and palmitoleic acid. For the oleic fatty acid, the treatment of pulp in non-freeze-drying irrigation conditions was the one that presented the greatest amount with With respect to the linoleic fatty acid, it detected that the greatest percentage of this agucaate comes from the non-freeze-drying rainfed pulp and the rest of the treatments were the same.

aguacate persea americana: Topics by

The previous reveals that the greatest amount of oleic acid is obtained in non-freeze-drying irrigation pulp and aguaacate linoleic in non-freeze-drying rainfed pulp, which reflects slight increases or decreases when freeze-drying depending on the production condition table 2.

With regards to the content of palmitic acid registered in the avocado pulps in freeze-drying and non-freeze-drying irrigation and rainfed conditions, these showed values of These values are higher than those reported by Ortega 31 which was Cmposicion, the values registered of palmitoleic acid 3. The results show that the fatty acids profile of avocado oil is mainly made up of unsaturated fatty acids with Likewise, Campos et al.


Ortega 31Campos et al. With regards to the oleic qumiica, Ortega 31 and Romero 32 reported data of These slight differenced detected between the results obtained and those of other authors could indicate that the accumulation of lipids is possibly influenced by the type of varieties, the production system, and climate where the fruit is developed, harvest time, and storage of the fruit Effect of production process on compoicion composition and fatty acids profile.

The results show that the irrigation or rainfed production environment statistically affect the amount of total fat, but not the rest of the components of the chemical composition like proteins, ashes and crude fiber. Four percent less total fat is produced in xel conditions compared to irrigation table 3. The diminution in total fat in rainfed conditions agaucate indirectly associated to what other authors have reported previously dep establishes that with the correct handling of water through an irrigation system the net assimilation of CO 2 and therefore the accumulation of photoassimilates increases When considering the chemical composition in wet basis, it shows that the moisture is the main component with The results calculated in wet basis are different than those reported by Ariza et al.

These differences could lie in that in this paper the moisture contents registered are lower than those of Ariza aguadate al. However, the protein results 1. Chemical composition of avocado pulp grown in rainfed RC and irrigation conditions IC. Means with the same letter in each column are not significantly different with p.

The irrigation and rainfed production conditions did not affect the amount of palmitic, palmitoleic, and linoleic fatty acids, as they had the same statistical results in irrigation and rainfed conditions.

In contrast, the oleic fatty acid resulted 5. Fatty acids profile of avocado pulp in irrigation IC and rainfed conditions RC. Effect of freeze-drying on chemical composition and fatty acids profile. The freeze-drying process did not statistically affect the chemical composition of the avocado pulp in all of the variables evaluated table 5 resulted statistically equal, thus these results aguacatr with several authors who have reported that freeze-drying does not affect the nutritional properties of the freeze-drying products The results are consistent with the fact that the state change occurred during the sublimation of water, It minimizes the possibility of loss of macronutrients by drag from interior of the cell; in contrast, other transformation methods, which work with liquid state water, there is a greater probability of damage to the cell structure as is the case of osmotic dehydration 37, The freeze-drying process did not statistically affect the fatty acids profile, except the linoleic acid, which decreased 1.

This reflects that the freeze-drying process slightly decreases the amount of linoleic acid, which differs from what many authors have set forth who reported that the freeze-drying process does not alter the product’s properties 8,11,12 compisicion, neither affects polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat from different species 39 and in microencapsulated walnut oil qguacate For these reasons, alteration the content of linoleic acid in the compksicion acid profile that was found in samples uqimica freeze-drying avocado in this study, are more associated at the storage conditions that the drying process as claimed 40 for the case of unsaturated fatty acids, because the temperature and oxygenation conditions during this stage are detonating potent factors in the autoxidation of fats Additionally, it is shown that the main problem of foods with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly long-chain fatty acids, is its high susceptibility to oxidation Therefore, the reduction quimicz only in the proportion of linoleic acid and not in the rest of fatty acid is a result of the higher reactivity of polyunsaturated fatty acids respect to monounsaturated as has been demonstrated in several studies The cmposicion color of the dried pulp was bright green with no signs of enzymatic or non-enzymatic browning.