PDF | On Jan 1, , L. Grisi and others published Reassessment of on IBGE () and Anualpec (INFORMA ECONOMICS FNP, ). ). In Brazil, bovine cattle (especially beef) are raised mostly in .. which accounts for % of calves produced in Brazil (ANUALPEC. Currently, the adoption rate of feedlot finishing and supplementation is around 10 % of the total herd (Anualpec, ), i.e., 90% of cattle is.
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Conceived and designed the experiments: Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil.
Cattle production in Brazil from to was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed anualpce further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years.
These maps showed that this movement anual;ec to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. The occupation of geographic space and territory has been a constant concern of agribusiness and society and, consequently, of public policies.
However, beef demand is growing worldwide [ 1 ] and stimulates increased productivity and production. This has occurred mainly in countries with areas for expansion of beef cattle, such as Naualpec. However, livestock development within a country or region has implications on several fronts genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutritionparticularly in continental-sized countries such as Brazil.
This movement in production is also accompanied by the need for adequate infrastructure abattoirs, transport, energy, inputs industriescommercialization and marketing, as well as technical support. It also fuels the need for credit programs as well as research and development activities to support intensification goals [ 3 ]. Furthermore, statistical analyses have shown only quantitative changes in herd productivity indicators and associated regions and do not enable a more detailed temporal interpretation to understand the different phenomena and dynamic trends of an activity in the territory.
Thus, the use of Geographical Information Systems Abualpec has resulted in a better and more timely visualization of production systems and can aid in the identification of problematic areas [ 4 ]. GIS can aid in the identification of areas that are suitable for the expansion of production [ 5 ], as well as identification of genetic resources for conservation [ 6 ].
Anulapec, the objective of this article is to study the dynamics of cattle production in Brazil on a municipal scale and to identify potential areas of strangulation for continued growth and variables that could limit the increase in production and productivity of the cattle in Brazil. This study considered all municipalities in total in five regions of Brazil. Data on cattle production in Brazil were obtained from the website of the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics [ 7 ] from to The relative growth rate was calculated using the following equation Eq The relative growth rate resulted in seven maps.
Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil
These maps were generated on a continuous scale, as these represent differences between two periods, presented as the beginning of one period until the end of the next period p. The spatial midpoint of production in the country was calculated for each year to assess the direction of production in the country. The latitude Eq 2 and longitude Eq 3 midpoint were obtained by multiplying the sum of the geographic coordinates of the municipality and their production divided by the number of municipalities for each year.
Two groups of clusters of municipalities were formed according to the relative growth and acceleration calculated above. Discriminant canonical analyses were used to identify regions and municipalities that behaved in a different manner.
Several different movements have been observed over the years: North —; — Midwest —; — and Northwest — Cattle numbers grew in all regions over the period studied Table 1.
The most expressive growth was initially observed in the Northeast and Midwest regions, which sustained this growth over the period; however, this growth has been slower in recent years Table 2.
The northeastern region underwent a deceleration in the s similar to the southeast at the end of this period. The southeastern and southern regions showed the slowest growth during these periods.
In recent years, strong growth was observed in the northern region of Brazil Fig 2G with a reduction in ajualpec south of the Midwest region and along the northern border with Colombia. This growth in the north ankalpec be observed from the early s Fig 2E—2G ; however, this reduction is a more recent phenomenon. Growth in the Midwest was observed in earlier years Fig 2A—2C.
While the Pantanal region of Brazil showed strong growth in cattle numbers in the s Fig 2Athe growth has recently been reduced Fig 2G. The acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years Fig 3but the southern part of this region anualec Midwest showed stagnation in the early years of this study. The maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.
The relative increase in production in the Midwest and northern regions is evident in Fig 4which is considerably higher compared to other regions. In the northern region, because the original herd was small, the initial acceleration — was high with the migration of cattle production from other regions, but in numeric 20133, the herd size has only become expressive within the last 10 years.
Although there was a high acceleration in production in the region since the s, this growth has decreased significantly in anualprc years.
201 Midwest and northern regions are highlighted for their increase in cattle production over the period studied, in particular, the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Goias, Mato Grosso Midwest region anuapec Roraima northern region. These two regions are also important for acceleration in production, which is specifically highlighted in the Northern states of Para, Roraima and Acre Northern region as well as the Midwestern state of Mato Grosso.
Clusters formed according to relative growth and acceleration data showed that a small part of the municipalities is responsible for the largest relative growth Table 3cluster 4 and acceleration in growth Table 4cluster 3.
Importantly, these clusters do not indicate the same group of municipalities in the two analyses. These reflect the highest variance in the discriminant model 20013 provide a summary of the separation of the municipalities.
Both increase and relative increases as anulpec as acceleration of production are observed in the Midwest, Southeast and Northern regions, with only a few municipalities in each of these regions are anjalpec for these changes. These municipalities showed both marked growth and retraction in given periods.
Can 1 and Can 2 are the first tow canonical scores for each municipality. Each point on the graph represents a municipality, with those that are named showing highest discriminatory values.
The causes of the geographical dynamics of the Brazilian cattle herd were originally associated with the need to meet the internal demand for beef, particularly in the s and s. The needs to expand the agricultural frontier in Brazil, the entry of foreign abattoir industries and the opening of markets to export processed beef to the United States have been motivated by the livestock sector and their migration to land anualpef at lower costs.
The existence of a secure market stimulated investments in animal production and expansion to areas that were further from production centers.
In this period, the driver was the existence of cheap land, which facilitated the increase in activity [ 8 ]. Subsequently, at the anualpev of the s, there was a greater increase in productivity rather than herd numbers, including a reduction in the area occupied by the activity.
The adoption of technologies changed beef cattle production and productivity, particularly by increasing the weaning rate and weaning weight anualpef reducing the age at slaughter and first mating.
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Technological developments in beef cattle production enabled Brazil to achieve an outstanding position in the international beef market. Intensification has been suggested as the means for the cattle industry [ 10 ] to reduce pressure on forest margins and free-up land for soybean or sugarcane production.
The sugarcane expansion resulted in a significant reduction of pastures and number of cattle and higher economic growth compared to neighboring areas [ 11 ]. However, it could not be established to what extent the discontinuation of cattle production induced the expansion of pastures in other areas, thereby potentially resulting in indirect deforestation. However, these results indicate that the potential migration of cattle production reached further than the neighboring expansion regions.
Therefore, a positive correlation between pasture, deforestation and cattle growth rate had existed in these Amazonian regions. This is also the mainstay of Brazil’s plan for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions [ 3 ], the environmental effect of animal production was crucial in the promotion of sustainability of agriculture production [ 12 ]. In the livestock sector, the animal productivity is related to food intake and weight gain efficiency, thereby generating methane emissions.
Thus, the low beef cattle productivity index becomes the big problem of emission of greenhouse gases. All of these factors reinforce the need for seeking more efficient systems of land use with constant monitoring of its dynamics.
Furthermore, the major drivers of sustainability in agriculture were the demands of the food market. The Mato Grosso and Goias States constitute as a physiographic continuation of the north and northwest of the state of Minas Gerais, with no physical barriers that facilitated the displaced of cattle to similar geographical environment areas. In this region, the main zebu breeding centers are localized on the limits of the Midwest, where there is cheap land and perspectives for the expansion of zebu breeds, particularly the Nelore breed.
The migration in cattle production was different from the migration in sheep production in Brazil during the same period [ 13 ], which followed a steady Northeastern route but has stabilized in recent years. This reflects the differences in production aims and market opportunities in the two production chains. It is estimated that there is a decrease in beef cattle productivity due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity in the cerrado savannah Midwest, north and northeast regions of Brazil [ 14 ].
This may explain some of the results found in the present study. The increase in cattle production and expansion of pastures for cattle ranching in the North is accompanied by deforestation [ 15 ]. Recently, soy production has also moved into the Amazonian forest [ 16 ]. This occurred despite allegations of a widespread marketplace transition within the beef and soy industries, the main drivers of deforestation, to exclude Amazon deforesters from their supply chains [ 17 ].
Nevertheless, the expansion through the incorporation of forest areas, particularly in the northern regions, meets with barriers that did not occur in the past. Questions related to the new Brazilian Forest code, the lack of logistics slaughterhouses, roads for a more intensive production, as well as the difficulty in obtaining credit for investments in the region, caused serious restrictions for the accelerated migration of cattle to this region.
On the other hand, although do not occur growth in the North region, with the current flock and the structure of agro-industrial complex linked to the beef chain, there will be a demand for increased production in the livestock sector, which can be achieved by increasing productivity. Production does not mean competitiveness, and studies have shown a lack of competitiveness within Brazilian beef production [ 1920 ]. The total productivity factor show that technological growth in the agribusiness sector in Brazil was 4.
Nevertheless, productivity grew by only 2. Thus, there was a gap between technological innovation and productivity. Restrictions to growth are due to the lack of credit, public policies directed to education, infrastructure and logistics.
This may explain the deceleration in cattle production in regions that have problems with slaughterhouse logistics, such as transport and production flow, but may also be due to an increased productivity in the region, the production systems in the Amazon region still present low technology use [ 22 ].
However, it must be considered that the Brazilian cattle industry still has its production base in volume and scale in the Midwest and northern regions, as the price of land and the conditions of the biome limit more rapid expansion of agricultural crops. However, with the technological improvements in the agricultural sector and soils that are currently of limited use for farming should, in the future, present economic viability and expel livestock to new frontiers or would change the existing production systems for a more intensive processes by the semi-confinement and confinement systems which may maintain the current herd situation.
This explains the movement of the cattle herd to the northern states of Brazil, as the land that had been previously occupied by livestock now produces soybeans and corn. Thus, production systems previously based on the complete cycle now lack conditions for fattening cattle, due to limitations of the pasture, a reduction in available physical space and logistics for the new region. However, this can affect the price of land for cattle ranching in Brazil, which increases in the same proportion as lands for agriculture.
The pro-intensification policies such as credit provision for recover degraded pastures and improved pasture management and investment in more intensive production systems must be accompanied by an implementation and enforcement of such policies [ 3 ]. These should alter the incentives to clear forest for pasture, discourage land speculation, and increase the accountability for land management practices if intensification of the cattle sector is to avoid new deforestation and displace production from low-yield, extensive cattle production systems in frontier regions of the Brazilian Amazon [ 12324 ].
However, this growth was higher in regions where land prices were lower North and Northeast Fig 8. In these regions, there was an incentive to rear beef cattle, particularly for the installation of large meat processors and the implementation of large projects producing meat for export.
However, due to environmental issues and port logistics and infrastructure, these regions failed to facilitate the sale of meat abroad. On the other hand, would improve productivity, especially in fattening due to adequacy of ranchers environmental legislation that enables the properties to provide animals for slaughter. These states are where the main structure for export of slaughtered animals is located, and they are also the main centers for completing feed-lots, which explains the fact that even with a reduction of the herd, they remain the leading exporters of meat.
Moving beef cattle production from one region to another requires skills and expertise as it passes through a redefinition of farming objectives, as well as strategies and processes to achieve better results. Nevertheless, there is always a risk that it will not work.